M─ori culture

Understanding New Zealand - and New Zealanders - means understanding the influence of M─ori people and culture.

It runs deep in many aspects of our daily life - from our cuisine, our language, and our attitudes, to what children learn at school and how the country is governed.

About the M─ori people

M─ori are the indigenous people of New Zealand Aotearoa.

Te Reo (the M─ori language) is an official language of the country, along with English and New Zealand Sign Language.

In the 2013 New Zealand census, nearly 700,000 people living in New Zealand were of M─ori descent (more than one in seven of us).

While the best way to learn about M─ori culture is to experience it first hand, Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand - has some excellent reading. It covers the history of M─ori arrival and settlement and an overview of M─ori culture to the present day. It also discusses ‘biculturalism’ and how the relationship between M─ori and Pakeha (M─ori term for people of European descent) has changed over time.

New Zealand’s unique mix of M─ori and European ideas and customs began with the 1840 signing of the Treaty of Waitangi - our founding constitutional document. The Treaty, signed by M─ori chiefs and representatives of the British crown when New Zealand first became a colony, continues to be hugely important in defining the relationship between M─ori and Pakeha.

M─ori Language Act 2016 | M─ori Language Commission / Te Taura Whiri i te Reo M─ori

M─ori | Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

Biculturalism | Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

The Treaty of Waitangi

2013 Census QuickStats about M─ori | Statistics New Zealand

M─ori culture in day-to-day life

Kete with shellfish

M─ori food and recipes

Try out some traditional M─ori recipes for yourself.

Read the article

The impact M─ori culture may have on your day-to-day life depends on where you live and what work you do.

In 2013, most M─ori (86%) lived in the North Island - nearly a quarter (23.8%) in the Auckland region. The areas with the highest percentage of M─ori after Auckland were the Waikato region (14%), the Bay of Plenty region (11.5%), and the Wellington region (9.7%). If your work or lifestyle takes you to any of these regions (or to Northland or Gisborne) you will find M─ori culture more visible than in other parts of the country.

If you work in the public sector you are likely to be involved in formal ceremonies that will include a lot of M─ori protocol. You may also have ‘understanding M─ori culture’ as one of your performance objectives or outcomes in your job description.

Visiting a marae

To get an idea of the protocols involved in visiting a marae (a meeting ground), view this video on New Zealand’s official TV and film funding agency website - NZ On Screen. It looks a bit dated (after all, it was filmed in 1984) but the ceremonies involved have long-standing traditions and the information in it still applies.

Beginner's guide to visiting the Marae | NZ On Screen

Understanding the basics

You will learn more about M─ori culture just by living here. But to get you started, here are some of the M─ori words and greetings you are likely to come across, tips on how to pronounce them, and information about key concepts in M─ori culture.

Te Reo - language and pronunciation

M─ori language (Te Reo) has been growing in use in recent years, with an increased number of M─ori words, particularly greetings, used commonly by both M─ori and non-M─ori.

View the following video to hear how M─ori say Grace.

Karakia Mo te Kai (Grace) (00:12)

Whakapaingia ┘nei kai
(Bless our food)
Hei oranga mo ┃ m─tou tinana
(As well being for our body)
Wh─ngaia ┃ m─tou wairua
(Feed our spirit)
Ki te taro o te ora
(With the food of wellness)
Ko Ihu Karaiti t┃ m─tou kaiwhakaora
(For Jesus Christ our Healer)
mine
(Amen)

Whakapaingia ┘nei kai
(Bless our food)
Hei oranga mo ┃ m─tou tinana
(As well being for our body)
Wh─ngaia ┃ m─tou wairua
(Feed our spirit)
Ki te taro o te ora
(With the food of wellness)
Ko Ihu Karaiti t┃ m─tou kaiwhakaora
(For Jesus Christ our Healer)
mine
(Amen)

The state broadcaster Radio New Zealand (RNZ) has a list of M─ori greetings with audio guides so you can hear how they should be pronounced.

New Zealand’s Ministry for Culture and Heritage also has a helpful collection of common M─ori words and phrases with audio guides so you can hear how the words should sound. You will soon see that M─ori language is pronounced as it is written, ie phonetically.

'Pearson' has also published an excellent online M─ori-English/English-M─ori Dictionary.

Greetings in te reo M─ori used on Radio NZ | Radio New Zealand

100 M─ori words every New Zealander should know | NZ History

Te Aka M─ori Dictionary | Pearson

Place names

Sometimes you might hear two different names used for places in New Zealand - the M─ori name and the English name. Some English names have been officially replaced by M─ori, but some people may still use the English name.

Or you may hear different pronunciations of the same M─ori name. Although Kiwis are gradually becoming more aware of using correct M─ori pronunciation, some people still have a distinctly Pakeha way of saying certain M─ori words.

Ingoa W─hi o Aotearoa - Aotearoa place names | M─ori Language.net

1000 Maori place names | NZ History

Customs - Tikanga

If you live in New Zealand you really should have a basic understanding of M─ori customs and protocol. It is essential if you want to visit a marae or get invited there in your line of work. The marae is the focal point of local M─ori communities throughout New Zealand.

Two important aspects of Tikanga you should be aware of are Manaakitanga and Kaitiakitanga.

Manaakitanga

Manaakitanga is all about hospitality and kindness. It sums up the act of welcoming and looking after guests. By offering hospitality, generosity and mutual respect, everyone involved comes out better off. The concept is important to many New Zealanders. It is even recognised by our Government as one of the two core values of our tourism strategy.

Kaitiakitanga

Kaitiakitanga is the strong sense of respect and guardianship M─ori have for the natural environment. Related concepts are mana, tapu and mauri.

  • Mana is spiritual power. A forest’s mana is shown by its abundant blossoms and fruit, and birds arriving to feed.
  • Tapu is spiritual restriction. For mana to come forth in the forest, some restrictions have to be put in place. Tapu is the basis for r─hui (restrictions) which, for instance, might put fishing areas off limits till stocks recover.
  • Mauri is life force. The mauri of the forest must be protected so its mana can flow.

Kaitiakitanga is another M─ori philosophy that is central to the way many New Zealanders think about their responsibility for the natural world.

Kaitiakitanga - guardianship and conservation | Te Ara Encyclopedia

Marae protocol | Te Ara Encyclopedia

Learning more

A good way to start learning more about M─ori culture is to visit your local museum. You can find a good list of museums, art galleries, cultural organisations and their collections online.

Another valuable way to experience M─ori culture is by visiting a marae. It is a good idea to go with a group. Check our regional pages for details about how to arrange this.

The M─ori Maps website can help you make contact with marae in your area.

Find museums | NZ Museums

Our cities and regions

M─ori maps | Te Potiki National Trust

Maori foods and recipes

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Page last updated: 04/11/2019

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